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Biology / Improvement In Food Resources / Irrigation For Better Crop
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Irrigation For Better Crop

Irrigation ensures a consistent and reliable water supply for crops, reducing dependence on unpredictable rainfall.

Irrigation: Watering of crop plants is called irrigation. The major source of water is rainfall.

  • Water is important for the proper growth and development of flowers, fruits and seeds of plants.
  • Water is absorbed by the roots. Along with water, minerals and fertilisers are also absorbed.
  • Water is essential for germination of seeds.
  • Water is essential for carrying out the produce of photosynthesis to make food.
  • Water dissolves nutrients which a transported to each part of the plant.
  • Traditional methods: Canal irrigation, furrow irrigation, chain pump, moat, dhekli, and rahat are some of the traditional methods of irrigation. These methods are cheaper, but often lead to wastage of water.

  • Flood Irrigation : The method is used if the land is flat and levelled . Water is allowed through canals or pumpsets upto the field.
  • Basin irrigation : Pumpkor flat basin is made around the plant A ring in and sweet gourd are irrigated by this method. A ring or flat basin is made around the plant and a number of plants are connected with a ditch passing between the rows of plants.
  • Furrow irrigation : Potato, cotton, radish and sugarcane are the crops whichn are irrigated by furrow methods. In this method, water is supplied to the furrow between the two ridges and the top of the ridges is not directly supplied with the water.
  • Modern methods: Sprinkler irrigation and drip irrigation are examples of modern methods of irrigation. These methods help in saving water. Care must be taken not to water the field excessively. Excess water on the field may cause a condition called water logging, which may harm the crop by:

  • Decreasing the amount of air available to the roots and
  • Leading to an increase in the salt content of the soil.
  • Sprinkler system: In sprinkler system, water sprayed on the plants using sprinklers for the perpendicular pipes having rotating nozzles on top are called sprinklers.

    Drip irrigation: This is the latest irrigation system in which small amount of water is allowed to  trickle slowly into the soil through mechanical devices. It is used in the following:

  • Vegetables:

  • Drip irrigation is commonly employed in vegetable cultivation, providing precise and efficient water delivery to crops such as tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, and lettuce.
  • Fruits:

  • Fruit orchards, including crops like grapes, strawberries, citrus fruits, and pomegranates, often utilize drip irrigation for controlled and targeted watering.

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